Taman Nasional Gunung Gede Pangrango [National Park]

The Oldest Tropical Mountain Rain Forest of Java

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Cibodas Biosphere Reserves

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Situated in the province of West Java in the south of Jakarta, Cibodas Biosphere Reserve is an example of an ecosystem in the humid tropics undergoing strong human pressure.

The Gunung Gede-Pangrango National Park constitutes the core area of the biosphere reserve. It includes two twinned volcanoes and mountainous rain forests with many Javan endemic species.

The buffer zone comprises for a large part production forest, tea plantations and horticulture fields. Rice irrigation fields and human settlements mostly cover the transition area.

Declaration Date: 1977
Surface Area
: : 21,975 ha
Administrative Division: Cianjur, Sukabumi and Bogor West Java

Human Activities

  • Participative rehabilitation programme of forest and land,especially at extension areas;
  • Ecotourism Management: interpreter/guiding, visitor safety,clean-up campaign, camping equipment rental;
  • Environmental education

Ecological characteristics

  • Based on elevation and composition of forest stratification, the existing vegetation is characterized of three types of ecosystems, i.e. sub-montane (<1.500 m asl), montane (1.500 - 2.400 m asl), and sub-alpine (<2.400 masl);
  • Also can be found other types of ecosystems which are not being influenced by elevation, namely swamp ecosystem, pond ecosystem, human made forest, and a unique ecosystem at « Alun-Alun »;
  • More than 1000 species of flora from 57 family can befound at the Park;- 251 species of bird or more than 50% of bird species in Java Island; 110 species of mammal; more than 300 species of insects; around 75 species of reptile; around 20 species of frogs; and several species of molluscs can be found in the Park. One species of bird, namely Javan eagle (Spizaetus bertelsi) is being declared as « satwa dirgantara» by Presidential Decree N° 4 of 9 January 1993;
  • The Park is as the upper course of watersheds of Citarum (Cianjur), Citanduy (Bogor), and Cimandiri (Sukabumi). The Park has 58 rivers and small rivers, supplying about 8million ton water annually. At the moment, there are 47 groups of water users both for commercial and non- commercial purposes at surrounding the Park.

Protection classification

At national level, the area was declared as a national park in 1980. The Park is core zone of Cibodas Biosphere Reserve.

[From: UNESCO » Natural Sciences » Environment » Ecological Sciences » Biosphere Reserves » Indonesia]

[source: www.unesco.org | 032013 | kuswandono]